It should be understood with John Fairbrother, Professor at Montreal Veterinary Faculty, expert from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) that: "Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a natural phenomenon that makes microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi become insensitive to the effects of antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, previously effective in treating infections. "
Since human and animal health are intrinsically linked to human health, estimates indicate that 700,000 people die each year from AMR and countless sick animals do not respond to treatment.
In addition, researchers shown that antibiotic resistance caused 25,000 deaths in Europe in 2007 and more than 23,000 in the United States in 2013, also resulting in a cost of € 1.5 billion over the same period in Europe and 20 billion in the United States.
Speaking during a scientific conference marking the fiftieth anniversary of the Interstate School of Veterinary Sciences and Medicine of Dakar (EISMV), Professor Fairbrother, holder of more than 100 published scientific papers and patents, explains that "The AMR reduces the effectiveness of drugs, making it difficult or impossible to treat infections and diseases. AMR is associated with increased mortality, prolonged illness in humans and animals, losses production in agriculture, livestock and aquaculture "
He adds that "antimicrobial resistance increases the cost of treatment and care".
The future does not look better
"Infections that are resistant to antimicrobial treatments could cause economic damage of at least the magnitude of 2008 financial crisis," warns Fairbrother.
The World Economic Projections for 2017-2050 period of the World Bank are even more alarming.
First, the GDP
By 2050, global annual GDP would decline by 1.1% in an "optimistic" scenario (assuming that antimicrobial resistance would have a low impact) and 3.8% in the worst case. In this "pessimistic" scenario, low-income countries would see losses increase over the years to more than 5% of GDP in 2050.
Then, livestock and world trade
World animal production could decline by 2.6% and 7.5% annually by 2050. The volume of exports would be reduced by 1.1% at best and by 3.8% in the worst case scenario.
Now, the cost of health care
Globally, health spending could increase in the range of $ 300 billion to $ 1 trillion per year by 2050.
Finally, poverty in the world
Antimicrobial resistance would push an additional 28.3 million people into extreme poverty by 2050 (worst case scenario), including 26.2 million in low-income countries.
While we are on track to end extreme poverty by 2030, the target is to reduce the proportion of people living below the 1.90 threshold to less than 3% dollar per day, this prospect is compromised by the threat posed by antimicrobial resistance.
After the diagnosis, place to the recommendations
To diminish the damage, Professor Fairbrother made a number of recommendations.
For him, the problem of antimicrobial resistance should be better promoted and communicated through effective communication, education and training; strengthen knowledge and evidence through monitoring and research; to reduce the incidence of infections through effective sanitation, hygiene and infection control measures; optimize the use of antimicrobial drugs in human and animal health; to develop the economic case for sustainable investments that take into account the needs of all countries and to increase investment in the development of new medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and other interventions.