A story, single success to inspire others.
Agridigitale is interested in the Rwandan case in this large file. Here is for you the first part.
First vision 2020
All or most of the policy and the success of agriculture in Rwanda is summarized in the vision 2020 document. The Government has launched an ambitious project that aims explicitly to reduce the number of people who depend on agriculture, 90% of the population in 2000 to 50 percent in 2020 in order to align with the plans of the Government for mechanization, the land consolidation and economies of scale to reduce the intensity of labor for production.
Ambitious development goals set out in the document "Vision 2020" of the country require an average annual increase of 13% economic growth, in order to allow Rwanda to achieve the status of countries middle-income countries by 2020.
Axe1: Crop Improvement Program
The central argument of the reform is improvement of Cultures (CIP, for Crop Improvement Program) program, which aims to increase agricultural productivity per hectare, mainly through the management of water (including recovery of swamp). measures of soil conservation, "the regional specialization of cultures" and the increase in fertilizer use.
Seven crops selected by the Government in 2006 for regional specialization. They are corn, rice, wheat, beans, soy, Irish potatoes and cassava.
Families must devote a portion of their land (often all) to these cultures. Those who don't comply with this directive may be punished.
In the Kirehe district, in the Eastern Province, those who attempted to continue their traditional practices to grow crops 'banned ' all cultivating those "approved" were sentenced to a fine and have seen "forbidden" crops uprooted.
The penalties are sometimes more severe: some inhabitants are passed into the hands of a captain of the Rwandan defense forces and at least one farmer was physically beaten in 2011 by the district authorities for unauthorized crops have been planted .
Axe2: Management of access to seeds and fertilizer
The Government, through its network of agronomists and local administrators, specifies the varieties of seeds that must be bought - or sometimes provided free of charge - and planted by local farmers.
Access to seeds is generally managed by institutions (para) State.
Fertilizer is supplied by the local administration in collaboration with commercial providers, which won the tender for the supply of fertilizer during the auction.
At present, the Government subsidizes chemical fertilizer, whose cost for producers is roughly 50% of the value of the market.
However, donors have expressed their concerns about the economic viability of this grant. The Government has said that it will gradually eliminate subsidies from 2012, reducing them already to 20% in 2013.
In some parts of Rwanda as the District of Kirehe and Musanze, local authorities oblige farmers to buy fertilizers, whether they like it or not.
Farmers are offered fertilizer on credit, they need to repay the cost at harvest time. Farmers were not allowed to sell or apply fertilizers other than those approved by the Government, and some have been arrested for selling illegal fertilizer.
Axe3: The obligation for farmers to join a cooperative
Cooperatives in Rwanda, as elsewhere, are characterised by a great diversity. There are unions of producers, marketing, small and large.
Some cooperatives are established voluntarily by farmers, without any coercion on the part of the State, and have got good prices on their products for their members.
In other cases, cooperatives are formed entirely by local elites associated with the authorities the elites who often hold positions in the administrative hierarchy.
Farmers are under pressure to join the cooperative. In the Kirehe district, for example, the farmers believe that you can not tell the difference between cooperatives and the institutions of the State. Leaders of cooperatives are often local authorities. The authorities sometimes referred to cooperatives as the only buyer approved for certain agricultural products on a given area, imposing fines on farmers trying to sell outside the cooperative system.
These interventions are based on the logic of economies of scale. Cooperatives are effective ways (from the State point of view) to collect the farmers to bring more land and work constantly in the lap of the improvement of crops (CIP) program; This in turn facilitates the negotiation of contracts with the agro‐industrie.
For proponents of this policy, cooperatives have the merit of maintaining family property rights and incentives to production.
The second part of this file on Monday, July 16.