To succeed this bet, studies were conducted by ITRA, ICAT and DFV technicians supported by GIZ, to determine technical routes for successful agricultural campaign.
Today, we will talk of the campaign of corn in the region of Savannah, in the North of Togo.
The informations in this folder come from « référentiel technico-économique zone savane humide au Togo » by ITRA, ICAT and DFV in collaboration with GIZ.
Choice, cleaning and plowing of the parcel
The parcel, is the surface on which the culture will be done.
A sunny parcel with a black soil is very favourable to the cultivation of corn in Savannah.
It is advisable to let ICAT technicians pay a visit to ensure that it is not a ground bottom or a ground that holds water and know the actual surface. That is very decisive in the dosage at the level of inputs.
It must be done in February. The plot, once identified should be cleaned between March and April.
The work at this stage is to cut shrubs and tall grass. Avoid the burning to maintain the richness of the soil. The parcel, once cleaned, must be plowed between April and may to a depth of 20cm to remove weeds. This will facilitate the seedlings.
Characteristics of the seeds of ITRA
Through scientific research, ITRA has developed a number of varieties improved seeds of corn adapted to the area and able to offer a better return.
They are : IKENE 9449-SR (resistant to the disease called stripe, this variety has a growth cycle between 100 and 105 days and able to offer 5tons per hectare harvest);
OBATANPA (lasting growth cycle of 95 to 105 days, this variety may offer up to 6 tons per hectare); TZEE W Pop STR QPM (likely to offer 3.5 tons per hectare, it is resistant to the Stria with a cycle duration of 80 to 85) and SOTUBAKA (this variety is characterized by its yellow color. It’s vegetative cycle is beetwen 100 to 110 days).
Purchase of seeds, pesticides and mineral fertilizers
To be sure of their quality, it is recommended to buy them in April in the stores of CAGIA or outlets of authorized inputs.
For a hectare prepare: 25 Kg of seed, 4 bags of fertilizer NPK, 15.15.15 50 Kg and two bags of urea of 50 Kg each. Based on the number of hectare, just do the multiplication to know how much to use.
The germination test is a very crucial step. Its goal is to ensure that the corn will grow very well. It is held mid-May, two weeks from sowing. To do this, simply planting 100 seeds at a depth of 3 to 5cm and water it every day. The fifth day, check the output of the plants. On the eighth day, we can count pushed plants.
-If the number of advanced plants reached at least 90, the seed is good.
And at the time of seeding, we put two seeds per hole Board.
-If the number of advanced plants is between 80 and 90 we have to put three seeds per hole during planting.
-If the number of advanced plants does not reach 80, it means that the seed is not good and you have to buy another.
It will be done between June and July. Need pegs spaced 80 cm on two parallel edges.
Connect two poles by a string to keep the line to facilitate future work. Based on the results of the test of germination, put 2 or 3 seeds in each hole to a depth of 3 to 5 cm! The distance between two hills is 40 cm.
Weeding and re-planting
Weeding is to remove weeds 10-15 days after sowing.
In order to avoid that these weeds are consuming water and food that gives the ground corn. Sometimes, plants do not grow in the hills and it affects the performance. To avoid that it is advisable to seek the planting where plants have not pushed to sow again. It will be done by the end of July.
Use of inputs
5 to 10 days after sowing, plants begin growing normally. It's the perfect time to put the fertilizer NPK, 15.15.15. Each plant needs 6g (a bottle of beer or filled candy CAP). A surface of one hectare will require 4 bags of 50 Kg of NPK, 15.15.15. To have big ears, we can use urea 30 days after sowing.
The amount needed is 3g. In case there are termites, you can mix urea with granule insecticides. Two packets of 1 Kg would be sufficient for one hectare.
Weeding and collection
It is to remove weeds and bring at the same time earth at the foot of the plants. It allows to support the plants against the wind and keep moisture at the base of the plants. It must be done at the same time as the application of urea. That is, 30 days after sowing.
From the sixth week, we can start applying twice per month insecticides to thwart the attacks of insects. Here is the list of insecticides approved for corn in the field: Bastian 10 G (1 Kg per hectare), Stork (750ml per hectare), Cyplalm200EC (250ml per hectare), Cypercal 12 EC (3l per hectare), Cyperplant100EC (0, 5l per hectare), Cyplandim (260 EC 1 l per hectare) and Cyper sam 50 EC (1 l per hectare).
Harvest, egrainage and storage
Corn harvest takes place 120 days after sowing. It is suffiscient for the corns to be dry. To collect, tie spikes on foot. Once harvested, the ears should be crammed on a tarp and let dry to facilitate the egrainage.
Immediately removed from the cobs, the corn must be put into bags before being put in a store clean, airy and dry. Improved depending on the variety chosen corn, and the respect of routes, one must raise 2 to 4 tons or 20 to 40 bags of 100 Kg of corn per hectare.
To avoid contact beetwen the bags, the walls and the floor, it is advisable to put them on pieces of wood.
Sale and market
It is desirable to be member of a cooperative. Because generally, well before the beginning of the beginning of the campaign, cooperatives look for buyers with whom they sign contracts of sale for the benefit of their members.
This way of selling allows producers, members ot cooperative to earn more money to provide for their families.